Paper 2019/1185

Formalising $\Sigma$-Protocols and Commitment Schemes using CryptHOL

David Butler, Andreas Lochbihler, David Aspinall, and Adria Gascon


Machine-checked proofs of security are important to increase the rigour of provable security. In this work we present a formalised theory of two fundamental two party cryptographic primitives: $\Sigma$-protocols and Commitment Schemes. $\Sigma$-protocols allow a prover to convince a verifier that they possess some knowledge without leaking information about the knowledge. Commitment schemes allow a committer to commit to a message and keep it secret until revealing it at a later time. We use CryptHOL to formalise both primitives and prove secure multiple examples namely; the Schnorr, Chaum-Pedersen and Okamoto $\Sigma$-protocols as well as a construction that allows for compound (AND and OR) $\Sigma$-protocols and the Pedersen and Rivest commitment schemes. A highlight of the work is a formalisation of the construction of commitment schemes from $\Sigma$-protocols. We formalise this proof at an abstract level using the modularity available in Isabelle/HOL and CryptHOL. This way, the proofs of the instantiations come for free.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Formal methodscommitment schemessigma protocols
Contact author(s)
dbutler @ turing ac uk
2019-10-15: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {David Butler and Andreas Lochbihler and David Aspinall and Adria Gascon},
      title = {Formalising $\Sigma$-Protocols and Commitment Schemes using CryptHOL},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/1185},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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