Paper 2019/1023

Randomly Choose an Angle from Immense Number of Angles to Rotate Qubits, Compute and Reverse

Dor Bitan and Shlomi Dolev


Homomorphic encryption (HE) schemes enable the processing of encrypted data and may be used by a user to outsource storage and computations to an untrusted server. A plethora of HE schemes has been suggested in the past four decades, based on various assumptions, and which achieve different attributes. In this work, we assume that the user and server are quantum computers, and look for HE schemes of classical data. We set a high bar of requirements and ask what can be achieved under these requirements. Namely, we look for HE schemes which are efficient, information-theoretically secure, perfectly correct, and which support homomorphic operations in a fully compact and non-interactive way. Fully compact means that decryption costs O(1) time and space. In contrast to the legacy quantum one-time pad scheme, our scheme is computation agnostic. That is, when delegating computations, the user can remain utterly oblivious to the implementation method chosen by the cloud. We suggest an encryption scheme based on random bases and discuss the homomorphic properties of that scheme. One of the advantages of our scheme is providing better security in the face of weak measurements (WM). Measurements of this kind enable collecting partial information on a quantum state while only slightly disturbing the state. We suggest here a novel QKD scheme based on random bases, which is resilient against WM-based attacks. We demonstrate the usefulness of our scheme in several applications. Notably, we bring up a new concept we call securing entanglement. We look at entangled systems of qubits as a resource, used for carrying out quantum computations, and show how our scheme may be used to guarantee that an entangled system can be used only by its rightful owners. To the best of our knowledge, this concept has not been discussed in previous literature.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Preprint. Minor revision.
Quantum homomorphic encryptionInformation-theoretic securityQuantum key distributionWeak measurementsSecuring entanglement
Contact author(s)
dorbi @ post bgu ac il
2020-08-03: revised
2019-09-11: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Dor Bitan and Shlomi Dolev},
      title = {Randomly Choose an Angle from Immense Number of Angles to Rotate Qubits, Compute and Reverse},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/1023},
      year = {2019},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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