Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2019/1010

On Perfect Correctness in (Lockable) Obfuscation

Rishab Goyal and Venkata Koppula and Satyanarayana Vusirikala and Brent Waters

Abstract: In a lockable obfuscation scheme a party takes as input a program $P$, a lock value $\alpha$, a message $m$ and produces an obfuscated program $\tilde{P}$. The obfuscated program can be evaluated on an input $x$ to learn the message $m$ if $P(x)= \alpha$. The security of such schemes states that if $\alpha$ is randomly chosen (independent of $P$ and $m$), then one cannot distinguish an obfuscation of $P$ from a ``dummy'' obfuscation. Existing constructions of lockable obfuscation achieve provable security under the Learning with Errors assumption. One limitation of these constructions is that they achieve only statistical correctness and allow for a possible one sided error where the obfuscated program could output the $m$ on some value $x$ where $P(x) \neq \alpha$.

In this work we motivate the problem of studying perfect correctness in lockable obfuscation for the case where the party performing the obfuscation might wish to inject a backdoor or hole in correctness. We begin by studying the existing constructions and identify two components that are susceptible to imperfect correctness. The first is in the LWE-based pseudo random generators (PRGs) that are non-injective, while the second is in the last level testing procedure of the core constructions.

We address each in turn. First, we build upon previous work to design injective PRGs that are provably secure from the LWE assumption. Next, we design an alternative last level testing procedure that has additional structure to prevent correctness errors. We then provide a surgical proof of security (to avoid redundancy) that connects our construction to the construction by Goyal, Koppula, and Waters (GKW). Specifically, we show how for a random value $\alpha$ an obfuscation under our new construction is indistinguishable from an obfuscation under the existing GKW construction.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / Obfuscation; Lockable Obfuscation; Perfect Correctness; Learning with Errors

Original Publication (with minor differences): IACR-TCC-2020

Date: received 7 Sep 2019, last revised 13 Nov 2020

Contact author: rgoyal at cs utexas edu, k venkata vk at gmail com, satya at cs utexas edu, bwaters at cs utexas edu

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Version: 20201113:193924 (All versions of this report)

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