**On the Complexity of Fair Coin Flipping**

*Iftach Haitner and Nikolaos Makriyannis and Eran Omri*

**Abstract: **A two-party coin-flipping protocol is $\epsilon$-fair if no efficient adversary can bias the output of the honest party (who always outputs a bit, even if the other party aborts) by more than $\epsilon$. Cleve [STOC '86] showed that $r$-round $o(1/r)$-fair coin-flipping protocols do not exist. Awerbuch et al. [Manuscript '85] constructed a $\Theta(1/\sqrt{r})$-fair coin-flipping protocol, assuming the existence of one-way functions. Moran et al. [Journal of Cryptology '16] constructed an $r$-round coin-flipping protocol that is $\Theta(1/r)$-fair (thus matching the aforementioned lower bound of Cleve [STOC '86]), assuming the existence of oblivious transfer.

The above gives rise to the intriguing question of whether oblivious transfer, or more generally ``public-key primitives'', is required for an $o(1/\sqrt r)$-fair coin flipping. This question was partially answered by Dachman-Soled et al. [TCC '11] and Dachman-Soled et al. [TCC '14], who showed that restricted types of fully black-box reductions cannot establish $o(1/\sqrt r)$-fair coin-flipping protocols from one-way functions. In particular, for constant-round coin-flipping protocols, Dachman-Soled et al. showed that black-box techniques from one-way functions can only guarantee fairness of order $1/\sqrt{r}$.

We make progress towards answering the above question by showing that, for any constant $r\in \mathbb N$, the existence of an $1/(c\cdot \sqrt{r})$-fair, $r$-round coin-flipping protocol implies the existence of an infinitely-often key-agreement protocol, where $c$ denotes some universal constant (independent of $r$). Our reduction is non black-box and makes a novel use of the recent dichotomy for two-party protocols of Haitner et al. [FOCS '18] to facilitate a two-party variant of the recent attack of Beimel et al. [FOCS '18] on multi-party coin-flipping protocols.

**Category / Keywords: **coin flipping, cryptography, fairness, key agreement

**Original Publication**** (in the same form): **IACR-TCC-2018

**Date: **received 24 Sep 2018

**Contact author: **n makriyannis at gmail com, iftach haitner@cs tau ac il, omrier@ariel ac il

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20180925:031047 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2018/901

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