Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/443

Quantum Multi-Key Homomorphic Encryption for Polynomial-Sized Circuits

Rishab Goyal

Abstract: Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is a powerful notion of encryption which allows data to be encrypted in such a way that anyone can perform arbitrary computations over the encrypted data without decryption or knowledge of the secret key. Traditionally, FHE only allows for computations over data encrypted under a single public key. Lopez-Alt et al. (STOC 2012) introduced a new notion of FHE, called multi-key FHE (MFHE), which permits joint computations over data encrypted under multiple independently-generated (unrelated) keys such that any evaluated ciphertext could be (jointly) decrypted by the parties involved in the computation. Such MFHE schemes could be readily used to delegate computation to cloud securely.

Recently a number of works have studied the problem of constructing quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) which is to perform quantum computations over encrypted quantum data. In this work we initiate the study of quantum multi-key homomorphic encryption (QMHE) and obtain the following results:

1) We formally define the notion of quantum multi-key homomorphic encryption and construct such schemes from their classical counterpart. Building on the framework of Broadbent and Jeffery (Crypto 2015) and Dulek et al. (Crypto 2016), we show that any classical multi-key leveled homomorphic encryption can be used to build a quantum multi-key leveled homomorphic encryption if we also have certain suitable error-correcting quantum gadgets. The length of the evaluation key grows linearly with the number of $T$-gates in the quantum circuit, thereby giving us a quantum multi-key leveled homomorphic encryption for circuits with polynomial but bounded number of $T$-gates.

2) To enable a generic transformation from any classical multi-key scheme, we introduce and construct a new cryptographic primitive which we call conditional oblivious quantum transform (COQT). A COQT is a distributed non-interactive encoding scheme that captures the essence of error-correcting gadgets required for quantum homomorphic encryption in the multi-key setting. We then build COQTs themselves from any classical multi-key leveled homomorphic encryption with $\boldsymbol{\mathrm{NC}}^1$ decryption. We believe that COQTs might be an object of independent interest.

3) We also show that our quantum multi-key homomorphic encryption schemes support distributed decryption of multi-key ciphertexts as well as allows ciphertext re-randomizability (thereby achieves quantum circuit privacy) if the underlying classical scheme also supports distributed decryption and satisfies classical circuit privacy. We show usefulness of distributed decryption and ciphertext re-randomizability for QMHE by providing efficient templates for building multi-party delegated/server-assisted quantum computation protocols from QMHE.

Additionally, due to our generic transformation, our quantum multi-key HE scheme inherits various features of the underlying classical scheme such as: identity/attribute-based, multi-hop, etc.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / quantum encryption, homomorphic encryption, multi-key

Date: received 9 May 2018, last revised 14 May 2018

Contact author: rgoyal at cs utexas edu

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Version: 20180515:153157 (All versions of this report)

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