Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/441

Optimal Linear Multiparty Conditional Disclosure of Secrets Protocols

Amos Beimel and Naty Peter

Abstract: In a $k$-party CDS protocol, each party sends one message to a referee (without seeing the other messages) such that the referee will learn a secret held by the parties if and only if the inputs of the parties satisfy some condition (e.g., if the inputs are all equal). This simple primitive is used to construct attribute based encryption, symmetrically-private information retrieval, priced oblivious transfer, and secret-sharing schemes for any access structure. Motivated by these applications, CDS protocols have been recently studied in many papers. In this work, we study linear CDS protocols, where each of the messages of the parties is a linear function of the secret and random elements taken from some finite field. Linearity is an important property of CDS protocols as many applications of CDS protocols required it.

Our main result is a construction of linear $k$-party CDS protocols for an arbitrary function $f:[N]^{k}\rightarrow \{0,1\}$ with messages of size $O(N^{(k-1)/2})$. By a lower bound of Beimel et al. [TCC 2017], this message size is optimal. We also consider functions with few inputs that return one, and design more efficient CDS protocols for them.

CDS protocols can be used to construct secret-sharing schemes for uniform access structures, where for some $k$ all sets of size less than $k$ are unauthorized, all sets of size greater than $k$ are authorized, and each set of size $k$ can be either authorized or unauthorized. We show that our results imply that every $k$-uniform access structure with $n$ parties can be realized by a linear secret-sharing scheme with share size $\min\{ (O(n/k))^{(k-1)/2},O(n \cdot 2^{n/2})\}$. Furthermore, the linear $k$-party CDS protocol with messages of size $O(N^{(k-1)/2})$ was recently used by Liu and Vaikuntanathan [STOC 2018] to construct a linear secret-sharing scheme with share size $O(2^{0.999n})$ for any $n$-party access structure.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Secret-sharing schemes, conditional disclosure of secrets protocols.

Date: received 10 May 2018, last revised 14 May 2018

Contact author: amos beimel at gmail com

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Version: 20180514:144708 (All versions of this report)

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