Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/192

SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts

Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino

Abstract: Albeit the primary usage of Bitcoin is to exchange currency, its blockchain and consensus mechanism can also be exploited to securely execute some forms of smart contracts. These are agreements among mutually distrusting parties, which can be automatically enforced without resorting to a trusted intermediary. Over the last few years a variety of smart contracts for Bitcoin have been proposed, both by the academic community and by that of developers. However, the heterogeneity in their treatment, the informal (often incomplete or imprecise) descriptions, and the use of poorly documented Bitcoin features, pose obstacles to the research. In this paper we present a comprehensive survey of smart contracts on Bitcoin, in a uniform framework. Our treatment is based on a new formal specification language for smart contracts, which also helps us to highlight some subtleties in existing informal descriptions, making a step towards automatic verification. We discuss some obstacles to the diffusion of smart contracts on Bitcoin, and we identify the most promising open research challenges.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / cryptocurrencies

Original Publication (with minor differences): Principles of Security and Trust, 2018

Date: received 17 Feb 2018

Contact author: bart at unica it

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20180220:015203 (All versions of this report)

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