Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/113

Classification of Balanced Quadratic Functions

Lauren De Meyer and Begül Bilgin

Abstract: S-boxes, typically the only nonlinear part of a block cipher, are the heart of symmetric cryptographic primitives. They significantly impact the cryptographic strength and the implementation characteristics of an algorithm. Due to their simplicity, quadratic vectorial Boolean functions are preferred when efficient implementations for a variety of applications are of concern. Many characteristics of a function stay invariant under affine equivalence. So far, all 6-bit Boolean functions, 3- and 4-bit permutations and 5-bit quadratic permutations have been classified up to affine equivalence. In this work, we propose a highly efficient algorithm to classify $n \times m$ functions for $n \geq m$. Our algorithm enables for the first time a complete classification of 6-bit quadratic permutations as well as all balanced quadratic functions for $n \leq 6$. These functions can be valuable for new cryptographic algorithm designs with efficient multi-party computation or side-channel analysis resistance as goal. In addition, we provide a second tool for finding decompositions of length two. We demonstrate its use by decomposing existing higher degree S-boxes and constructing new S-boxes with good cryptographic and implementation properties.

Category / Keywords: Affine Equivalence, S-box, Boolean functions, Classification, Decomposition

Date: received 29 Jan 2018, last revised 13 Feb 2018

Contact author: lauren demeyer at esat kuleuven be

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Note: table edits and extra reference

Version: 20180213:142748 (All versions of this report)

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