Paper 2017/925

Resettably-Sound Resettable Zero Knowledge in Constant Rounds

Wutichai Chongchitmate, Rafail Ostrovsky, and Ivan Visconti


In FOCS 2001 Barak et al. conjectured the existence of zero-knowledge arguments that remain secure against resetting provers and resetting verifiers. The conjecture was proven true by Deng et al. in FOCS 2009 under various complexity assumptions and requiring a polynomial number of rounds. Later on in FOCS 2013 Chung et al. improved the assumptions requiring one-way functions only but still with a polynomial number of rounds. In this work we show a constant-round resettably-sound resettable zero-knowledge argument system, therefore improving the round complexity from polynomial to constant. We obtain this result through the following steps. 1. We show an explicit transform from any $\ell$-round concurrent zero-knowledge argument system into an $O(\ell)$-round resettable zero-knowledge argument system. The transform is based on techniques proposed by Barak et al. in FOCS 2001 and by Deng et al. in FOCS 2009. Then, we make use of a recent breakthrough presented by Chung et al. in CRYPTO 2015 that solved the longstanding open question of constructing a constant-round concurrent zero-knowledge argument system from plausible polynomial-time hardness assumptions. Starting with their construction $\Gamma$ we obtain a constant-round resettable zero-knowledge argument system $\Lambda$. 2. We then show that by carefully embedding $\Lambda$ inside $\Gamma$ (i.e., essentially by playing a modification of the construction of Chung et al. against the construction of Chung et al.) we obtain the first constant-round resettably-sound concurrent zero-knowledge argument system $\Delta$. 3. Finally, we apply a transformation due to Deng et al. to $\Delta$ obtaining a resettably-sound resettable zero-knowledge argument system $\Pi$, the main result of this work. While our round-preserving transform for resettable zero knowledge requires one-way functions only, both $\Lambda, \Delta$ and $\Pi$ extend the work of Chung et al. and as such they rely on the same assumptions (i.e., families of collision-resistant hash functions, one-way permutations and indistinguishability obfuscation for P/poly, with slightly super-polynomial security).

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published by the IACR in TCC 2017
zero knowledgeresettable ZKresettable soundnessconstant-Roundindistinguishability obfuscation
Contact author(s)
wutichai @ cs ucla edu
2017-09-24: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Wutichai Chongchitmate and Rafail Ostrovsky and Ivan Visconti},
      title = {Resettably-Sound Resettable Zero Knowledge in Constant Rounds},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2017/925},
      year = {2017},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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