**Security Analysis of Arbiter PUF and Its Lightweight Compositions Under Predictability Test**

*Phuong Ha Nguyen and Durga Prasad Sahoo and Rajat Subhra Chakraborty and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay*

**Abstract: **Unpredictability is an important security property of Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) in the context of statistical attacks, where the correlation between challenge-response pairs is explicitly exploited. In existing literature on PUFs, Hamming Distance test, denoted by $\mathrm{HDT}(t)$, was proposed to evaluate the unpredictability of PUFs, which is a simplified case of the Propagation Criterion test $\mathrm{PC}(t)$. The objective of these testing schemes is to estimate the output transition probability when there are $t$ or less than $t$ bits flips, and ideally, this probability value should be 0.5. In this work, we show that aforementioned two testing schemes are not enough to ensure the unpredictability of a PUF design. We propose a new test which is denoted as $\mathrm{HDT}(\mathbf{e},t)$. This testing scheme is a fine-tuned version of the previous schemes, as it considers the flipping bit pattern vector $\mathbf{e}$ along with parameter $t$. As a contribution, we provide a comprehensive discussion and analytic interpretation of $\mathrm{HDT}(t)$, $\mathrm{PC}(t)$ and $\mathrm{HDT}(\mathbf{e},t)$ test schemes for Arbiter PUF (APUF), XOR PUF and Lightweight Secure PUF (LSPUF). Our analysis establishes that $\mathrm{HDT}(\mathbf{e},t)$ test is more general in comparison with $\mathrm{HDT}(t)$ and $\mathrm{PC}(t)$ tests. In addition, we demonstrate a few scenarios where the adversary can exploit the information obtained from the analysis of $\mathrm{HDT}(\mathbf{e},t)$ properties of APUF, XOR PUF and LSPUF to develop statistical attacks on them, if the ideal value of $\mathrm{HDT}(\mathbf{e},t)=0.5$ is not achieved for a given PUF. We validate our theoretical observations using the simulated and FPGA implemented APUF, XOR PUF and LSPUF designs.

**Category / Keywords: **applications /

**Original Publication**** (with minor differences): **10.1145/2940326

**Date: **received 23 May 2017, last revised 25 May 2017

**Contact author: **dpsahoo cs at gmail com

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20170526:235012 (All versions of this report)

**Short URL: **ia.cr/2017/459

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