Paper 2017/1170

SAT-based Bit-flipping Attack on Logic Encryptions

Yuanqi Shen, Amin Rezaei, and Hai Zhou


Logic encryption is a hardware security technique that uses extra key inputs to prevent unauthorized use of a circuit. With the discovery of the SAT-based attack, new encryption techniques such as SARLock and Anti-SAT are proposed, and further combined with traditional logic encryption techniques, to guarantee both high error rates and resilience to the SAT-based attack. In this paper, the SAT-based bit-flipping attack is presented. It first separates the two groups of keys via SAT-based bit-flippings, and then attacks the traditional encryption and the SAT-resilient encryption, by conventional SAT-based attack and by-passing attack, respectively. The experimental results show that the bit-flipping attack successfully returns a circuit with the correct functionality and significantly reduces the executing time compared with other advanced attacks.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
logic encryptionSAT-based attacksecurity analysis
Contact author(s)
haizhou @ northwestern edu
2017-12-06: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Yuanqi Shen and Amin Rezaei and Hai Zhou},
      title = {SAT-based Bit-flipping Attack on Logic Encryptions},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2017/1170},
      year = {2017},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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