Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2017/1124

A formal model of Bitcoin transactions

Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino

Abstract: We propose a formal model of Bitcoin transactions, which is sufficiently abstract to enable formal reasoning, and at the same time is concrete enough to serve as an alternative documentation to Bitcoin. We use our model to formally prove some well-formedness properties of the Bitcoin blockchain, for instance that each transaction can only be spent once. We release an open-source tool through which programmers can write transactions in our abstract model, and compile them into standard Bitcoin transactions.

Category / Keywords: applications / cryptocurrencies

Original Publication (with minor differences): Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2018

Date: received 20 Nov 2017, last revised 4 Apr 2018

Contact author: bart at unica it

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Note: minor fixes transaction signatures

Version: 20180404:103726 (All versions of this report)

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