Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2015/789

Efficient Hardware Implementations of the Warbler Pseudorandom Number Generator

Gangqiang Yang and Mark D. Aagaard and Guang Gong

Abstract: Pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are very important for EPC Class 1 Generation 2 (EPC C1 G2) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. A PRNG is able to provide a 16-bit random number that is used in many commands of the EPC C1 G2 standard, and it can also be used in future security extensions of the EPC C1 G2 standard, such as mutual authentication protocols between the readers and tags. In this paper, we investigate efficient ASIC hardware implementations of Warbler (a lightweight PRNG), and demonstrate that Warbler can meet the area and power consumption requirements in passive RFID systems. Warbler is built upon three nonlinear feedback shift registers (NLFSRs) and four WG-5 transformation modules. We employ two design options to implement Warbler and three different compilation methods to further optimize the area, maximum operating frequency, and power consumption. We can achieve an area of 498 GEs after the place and route phase in a CMOS 65nm ASIC, with a maximum frequency of 1430 MHz and a total power consumption of 1.239uW at 100 KHz. Accordingly, an area of 534 GEs after the place and route phase, with a maximum frequency of 250 MHz and a total power consumption of 0.296 uW at 100 KHz can be obtained in a CMOS 130nm ASIC. Our results show that the LFSR counter based design is better than the binary counter-based one in terms of area and power consumption. In addition, we show that the areas of WG-5 transformation look-up tables depend on the specific decimation values.

Category / Keywords: implementation / PRNG, Lightweight, Warbler, ASICs, Passive RFID

Original Publication (in the same form): Lightweight Cryptography Workshop 2015

Date: received 6 Aug 2015

Contact author: g37yang at uwaterloo ca

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20150810:142040 (All versions of this report)

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