Paper 2015/740

Predictable Arguments of Knowledge

Antonio Faonio, Jesper Buus Nielsen, and Daniele Venturi


We initiate a formal investigation on the power of {\em predictability} for argument of knowledge systems for \NP. Specifically, we consider private-coin argument systems where the answer of the prover can be predicted, given the private randomness of the verifier; we call such protocols Predictable Arguments of Knowledge (PAoK). Our study encompasses a full characterization of PAoK, showing that such arguments can be made extremely laconic, with the prover sending a single bit, and assumed to have only one round (i.e.,\ two messages) of communication without loss of generality. We additionally explore PAoK satisfying additional properties (including zero-knowledge and the possibility of re-using the same challenge across multiple executions with the prover), present several constructs of PAoK relying on different cryptographic tools, and discuss applications to cryptography.

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A major revision of an IACR publication in PKC 2017
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afaonio @ gmail com
2017-01-13: last of 6 revisions
2015-07-24: received
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      author = {Antonio Faonio and Jesper Buus Nielsen and Daniele Venturi},
      title = {Predictable Arguments of Knowledge},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2015/740},
      year = {2015},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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