Paper 2013/615

Privacy and Verifiability in Voting Systems: Methods, Developments and Trends

Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw, and Jun Pang


One of the most challenging aspects in computer-supported voting is to combine the apparently conflicting requirements of privacy and verifiability. On the one hand, privacy requires that a vote cannot be traced back from the result to a voter, while on the other hand, verifiability states that a voter can trace the effect of her vote on the result. This can be addressed using various privacy-enabling cryptographic primitives which also offer verifiability. As more and more refined voting systems were proposed, understanding of first privacy and later verifiability in voting increased, and notions of privacy as well as notions of verifiability in voting became increasingly more refined. This has culminated in a variety of verifiable systems that use cryptographic primitives to ensure specific kinds of privacy. However, the corresponding privacy and verifiability claims are not often verified independently. When they are investigated, claims have been invalidated sufficiently often to warrant a cautious approach to them. The multitude of notions, primitives and proposed solutions that claim to achieve both privacy and verifiability form an interesting but complex landscape. The purpose of this paper is to survey this landscape by providing an overview of the methods, developments and current trends regarding privacy and verifiability in voting systems.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Computer Science Review
Contact author(s)
jun pang @ uni lu
2013-09-26: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Hugo Jonker and Sjouke Mauw and Jun Pang},
      title = {Privacy and Verifiability in Voting Systems: Methods, Developments and Trends},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2013/615},
      year = {2013},
      doi = {},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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