Paper 2013/307

Maliciously Circuit-Private FHE

Rafail Ostrovsky, Anat Paskin-Cherniavsky, and Beni Paskin-Cherniavsky


We present a framework for transforming FHE (fully homomorphic encryption) schemes with no circuit privacy requirements into maliciously circuit-private FHE. That is, even if both maliciously formed public key and ciphertext are used, encrypted outputs only reveal the evaluation of the circuit on some well-formed input $x^*$. Previous literature on FHE only considered semi-honest circuit privacy. Circuit-private FHE schemes have direct applications to computing on encrypted data. In that setting, one party (a receiver) holding an input $x$ wishes to learn the evaluation of a circuit $C$ held by another party (a sender). The goal is to make receiver's work sublinear (and ideally independent) of $|C|$, using a 2-message protocol. The transformation technique may be of independent interest, and have various additional applications. The framework uses techniques akin to Gentry's bootstrapping and conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS [AIR01]) combining a non circuit private FHE scheme, with a homomorphic encryption (HE) scheme for a smaller class of circuits which is maliciously circuit-private. We devise the first known circuit private FHE, by instantiating our framework by various (standard) FHE schemes from the literature.

Note: Full version for submission to CRYPTO 2014. Added: * Added a new multi-hop circuit-private FHE result. * Separated steps 1 and 2, so now the construction precisely follows the outline in the intro (upto an optional simplification). * Improved notation and presentation.

Available format(s)
Publication info
A major revision of an IACR publication in CRYPTO 2014
Fully homomorphic encryptioncomputing on encrypted dataprivacymalicious setting
Contact author(s)
anps83 @ gmail com
2014-08-19: revised
2013-05-25: received
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      author = {Rafail Ostrovsky and Anat Paskin-Cherniavsky and Beni Paskin-Cherniavsky},
      title = {Maliciously Circuit-Private FHE},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2013/307},
      year = {2013},
      doi = {10.1007/978-3-662-44371-2_30},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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