Paper 2013/008

Non-Black-Box Simulation from One-Way Functions And Applications to Resettable Security

Kai-Min Chung, Rafael Pass, and Karn Seth


The simulation paradigm, introduced by Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff, is of fundamental importance to modern cryptography. In a breakthrough work from 2001, Barak (FOCS'01) introduced a novel non-black-box simulation technique. This technique enabled the construction of new cryptographic primitives, such as resettably-sound zero-knowledge arguments, that cannot be proven secure using just black-box simulation techniques. The work of Barak and its follow-ups, however, all require stronger cryptographic hardness assumptions than the minimal assumption of one-way functions: the work of Barak requires the existence of collision-resistant hash functions, and a very recent result by Bitansky and Paneth (FOCS'12) instead requires the existence of an Oblivious Transfer protocol. In this work, we show how to perform non-black-box simulation assuming just the existence of one-way functions. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of a constant-round resettably-sound zero-knowledge argument based only on the existence of one-way functions. Using this technique, we determine necessary and sufficient assumptions for several other notions of resettable security of zero-knowledge proofs. An additional benefit of our approach is that it seemingly makes practical implementations of non-black-box zero-knowledge viable.

Note: Section 6.3 was added in the revision.

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Published elsewhere. Unknown where it was published
non-black-box simulationsresettable securityone-way functionszero-knowledges
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chung @ cs cornell edu
2013-02-05: revised
2013-01-12: received
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      author = {Kai-Min Chung and Rafael Pass and Karn Seth},
      title = {Non-Black-Box Simulation from One-Way Functions And Applications to Resettable Security},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2013/008},
      year = {2013},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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