Paper 2012/226

ZKPDL: A Language-Based System for Efficient Zero-Knowledge Proofs and Electronic Cash

Sarah Meiklejohn, C. Chris Erway, Alptekin Küpçü, Theodora Hinkle, and Anna Lysyanskaya


In recent years, many advances have been made in cryptography, as well as in the performance of communication networks and processors. As a result, many advanced cryptographic protocols are now efficient enough to be considered practical, yet research in the area remains largely theoretical and little work has been done to use these protocols in practice, despite a wealth of potential applications. This paper introduces a simple description language, ZKPDL, and an interpreter for this language. ZKPDL implements non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge, a primitive which has received much attention in recent years. Using our language, a single program may specify the computation required by both the prover and verifier of a zero-knowledge protocol, while our interpreter performs a number of optimizations to lower both computational and space overhead. Our motivating application for ZKPDL has been the efficient implementation of electronic cash. As such, we have used our language to develop a cryptographic library, Cashlib, that provides an interface for using ecash and fair exchange protocols without requiring expert knowledge from the programmer.


Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. full version of paper published at USENIX Security 2010
applicationselectronic commerce and paymentfair exchangezero knowledge
Contact author(s)
akupcu @ ku edu tr
2012-04-30: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and C.  Chris Erway and Alptekin Küpçü and Theodora Hinkle and Anna Lysyanskaya},
      title = {ZKPDL: A Language-Based System for Efficient Zero-Knowledge Proofs and Electronic Cash},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2012/226},
      year = {2012},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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