Paper 2010/194

Identity-Based Online/Offline Key Encapsulation and Encryption

Sherman S. M. Chow, Joseph K. Liu, and Jianying Zhou


An identity-based online/offline encryption (IBOOE) scheme splits the encryption process into two phases. The first phase performs most of the heavy computations, such as modular exponentiation or pairing over points on elliptic curve. The knowledge of the plaintext or the receiver's identity is not required until the second phase, where the ciphertext is produced by only light computations, such as integer addition/multiplication or hashing. This division of computations makes encryption affordable by devices with limited computation power since the preparation works can be executed ``offline'' or possibly by some powerful devices. Since efficiency is the main concern, smaller ciphertext size and less burden in the computation requirements of all phases (i.e., both phases of encryption and the decryption phase) are desirable. In this paper, we proposed new schemes with improved efficiency over previous schemes by assuming random oracles. Our first construction is a very efficient scheme which is secure against chosen-plaintext attack (CPA), This scheme is slightly modified from an existing scheme. In particular, the setup and the user private key remain the same. We then proceed to propose the notion of ID-based Online/Offline KEM (IBOOKEM) that allows the key encapsulation process to be split into offline and online stages, in the same way as IBOOE does. We also present a generic transformation to get security against chosen-ciphertext attack (CCA) for IBOOE from any IBOOKEM scheme with one-wayness only. Our schemes (both CPA and CCA) are the most efficient one in the state-of-the-art, in terms of online computation and ciphertext size, which are the two main focuses of online/offline schemes. Our schemes are very suitable to be deployed on embedded devices such as smartcard or wireless sensor which have very limited computation powers and the communication bandwidth is very expensive.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Unknown where it was published
identity-based encryption
Contact author(s)
schow @ cs nyu edu
2010-04-09: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Sherman S. M.  Chow and Joseph K.  Liu and Jianying Zhou},
      title = {Identity-Based Online/Offline Key Encapsulation and Encryption},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2010/194},
      year = {2010},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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