Paper 2009/379

Protecting Circuits from Computationally Bounded and Noisy Leakage

Sebastian Faust, Tal Rabin, Leonid Reyzin, Eran Tromer, and Vinod Vaikuntanathan


Physical computational devices leak side-channel information that may, and often does, reveal secret internal states. We present a general transformation that compiles any circuit into a circuit with the same functionality but resilience against well-defined classes of leakage. Our construction requires a small, stateless and computation-independent leak-proof component that draws random elements from a fixed distribution. In essence, we reduce the problem of shielding arbitrarily complex circuits to the problem of shielding a single, simple component. Our approach is based on modeling the adversary as a powerful observer that inspects the device via a limited measurement apparatus. We allow the apparatus to access all the bits of the computation (except those inside the leak-proof component), and the amount of leaked information to grow unbounded over time. However, we assume that the apparatus is limited in the amount of output bits per iteration and the ability to decode certain linear encodings. While our results apply in general to such leakage classes, in particular, we obtain security against: - Constant-depth circuits leakage, where the leakage function is computed by an AC^0 circuit (composed of NOT gates and unbounded fan-in AND and OR gates). - Noisy leakage, where the leakage function reveals all the bits of the internal state of the circuit, perturbed by independent binomial noise. Namely, for some number p \in (0,1/2], each bit of the computation is flipped with probability p, and remains unchanged with probability 1-p.

Note: The previous version was from before the computationally bounded and noisy cases were merged. This version has substantial revisions since Eurocrypt 2010.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. SIAM Journal on Computing
side channelleakage resiliencemodels
Contact author(s)
reyzin @ cs bu edu
2014-07-01: last of 4 revisions
2009-08-03: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Sebastian Faust and Tal Rabin and Leonid Reyzin and Eran Tromer and Vinod Vaikuntanathan},
      title = {Protecting Circuits from Computationally Bounded and Noisy Leakage},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2009/379},
      year = {2009},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.