Paper 2009/200

A Survey on the Evolution of Cryptographic Protocols in ePassports

Rishab Nithyanand


ePassports are biometric identification documents that contain RFID Tags and are primarily used for border security. The embedded RFID Tags are capable of storing data, performing low cost computations and cryptography, and communicating wirelessly. Since 2004, we have witnessed the development and widespread deployment of three generations of electronic passports - The ICAO First Generation ePassport (2004), Extended Access Control (EAC v1.0) ePassports (2006), and Extended Access Control with Password Authentication and Connection Establishment (EAC v2.1) ePassports (2008). Currently, over thirty million ePassports have been issued around the world. In this paper, we provide an introductory study of the technologies implemented in ePassports - Biometrics, RFID, and Public Key Infrastructures; and then go on to analyze the protocols implemented in each of the three generations of ePassports, finally we point out their shortcomings and scope for future related research.

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Published elsewhere. Unknown where it was published
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rishabn @ uci edu
2009-09-21: last of 3 revisions
2009-05-20: received
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      author = {Rishab Nithyanand},
      title = {A Survey on the Evolution of Cryptographic Protocols in ePassports},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2009/200},
      year = {2009},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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