Paper 2008/534

Somewhat Non-Committing Encryption and Efficient Adaptively Secure Oblivious Transfer

Juan A. Garay, Daniel Wichs, and Hong-Sheng Zhou


Designing efficient cryptographic protocols tolerating adaptive adversaries, who are able to corrupt parties on the fly as the computation proceeds, has been an elusive task. Indeed, thus far no \emph{efficient} protocols achieve adaptive security for general multi-party computation, or even for many specific two-party tasks such as oblivious transfer (OT). In fact, it is difficult and expensive to achieve adaptive security even for the task of \emph{secure communication}, which is arguably the most basic task in cryptography. In this paper we make progress in this area. First, we introduce a new notion called \emph{semi-adaptive} security which is slightly stronger than static security but \emph{significantly weaker than fully adaptive security}. The main difference between adaptive and semi-adaptive security is that, for semi-adaptive security, the simulator is not required to handle the case where \emph{both} parties start out honest and one becomes corrupted later on during the protocol execution. As such, semi-adaptive security is much easier to achieve than fully adaptive security. We then give a simple, generic protocol compiler which transforms any semi-adaptively secure protocol into a fully adaptively secure one. The compilation effectively decomposes the problem of adaptive security into two (simpler) problems which can be tackled separately: the problem of semi-adaptive security and the problem of realizing a weaker variant of secure channels. We solve the latter problem by means of a new primitive that we call {\em somewhat non-committing encryption} resulting in significant efficiency improvements over the standard method for realizing (fully) secure channels using (fully) non-committing encryption. Somewhat non-committing encryption has two parameters: an equivocality parameter $\ell$ (measuring the number of ways that a ciphertext can be ``opened'') and the message sizes $k$. Our implementation is very efficient for small values $\ell$, \emph{even} when $k$ is large. This translates into a very efficient compilation of many semi-adaptively secure protocols (in particular, for a task with small input/output domains such as bit-OT) into a fully adaptively secure protocol. Finally, we showcase our methodology by applying it to the recent Oblivious Transfer protocol by Peikert \etal\ [Crypto 2008], which is only secure against static corruptions, to obtain the first efficient, adaptively secure and composable OT protocol. In particular, to transfer an $n$-bit message, we use a constant number of rounds and $O(n)$ public key operations.

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Cryptographic protocols
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Published elsewhere. Unknown where it was published
Contact author(s)
hszhou @ cse uconn edu
2009-04-15: last of 3 revisions
2008-12-19: received
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      author = {Juan A.  Garay and Daniel Wichs and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
      title = {Somewhat Non-Committing Encryption and Efficient Adaptively Secure Oblivious Transfer},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2008/534},
      year = {2008},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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