Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2007/467

Interactive and Noninteractive Zero Knowledge are Equivalent in the Help Model

André Chailloux and Dragos Florin Ciocan and Iordanis Kerenidis and Salil Vadhan

Abstract: We show that interactive and noninteractive zero-knowledge are equivalent in the `help model' of Ben-Or and Gutfreund ({\em J. Cryptology}, 2003). In this model, the shared reference string is generated by a probabilistic polynomial-time dealer who is given access to the statement to be proven. Our results do not rely on any unproven complexity assumptions and hold for statistical zero knowledge, for computational zero knowledge restricted to AM, and for quantum zero knowledge when the help is a pure quantum state.

Category / Keywords: cryptography, computational complexity, noninteractive zero-knowledge proofs, commitment schemes, Arthur-Merlin games, quantum zero knowledge

Publication Info: A shorter version was sent at TCC'08

Date: received 13 Dec 2007

Contact author: andre chailloux at ens-lyon fr

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Version: 20071219:135208 (All versions of this report)

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