Paper 2006/270

Formal Analysis and Systematic Construction of Two-factor Authentication Scheme

Guomin Yang, Duncan S. Wong, Huaxiong Wang, and Xiaotie Deng


One of the most commonly used two-factor authentication mechanisms is based on smart card and user's password. Throughout the years, there have been many schemes proposed, but most of them have already been found flawed due to the lack of formal security analysis. On the cryptanalysis of this type of schemes, in this paper, we further review two recently proposed schemes and show that their security claims are invalid. To address the current issue, we propose a new and simplified property set and a formal adversarial model for analyzing the security of this type of schemes. We believe that the property set and the adversarial model themselves are of independent interest. We then propose a new scheme and a generic construction framework. In particular, we show that a secure password based key exchange protocol can be transformed efficiently to a smartcard and password based two-factor authentication scheme provided that there exist pseudorandom functions and collision-resistant hash functions.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Unknown where it was published
AuthenticationPasswordSmart CardGuessing Attack
Contact author(s)
duncan @ cityu edu hk
2006-08-15: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Guomin Yang and Duncan S.  Wong and Huaxiong Wang and Xiaotie Deng},
      title = {Formal Analysis and Systematic Construction of Two-factor Authentication Scheme},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2006/270},
      year = {2006},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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