Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2006/270

Formal Analysis and Systematic Construction of Two-factor Authentication Scheme

Guomin Yang and Duncan S. Wong and Huaxiong Wang and Xiaotie Deng

Abstract: One of the most commonly used two-factor authentication mechanisms is based on smart card and user's password. Throughout the years, there have been many schemes proposed, but most of them have already been found flawed due to the lack of formal security analysis. On the cryptanalysis of this type of schemes, in this paper, we further review two recently proposed schemes and show that their security claims are invalid. To address the current issue, we propose a new and simplified property set and a formal adversarial model for analyzing the security of this type of schemes. We believe that the property set and the adversarial model themselves are of independent interest.

We then propose a new scheme and a generic construction framework. In particular, we show that a secure password based key exchange protocol can be transformed efficiently to a smartcard and password based two-factor authentication scheme provided that there exist pseudorandom functions and collision-resistant hash functions.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Authentication, Password, Smart Card, Guessing Attack

Date: received 13 Aug 2006

Contact author: duncan at cityu edu hk

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Version: 20060815:200122 (All versions of this report)

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