Paper 2002/030

Adaptive chi-square test and its application to some cryptographic problems.

Boris Ryabko


We address the problem of testing the hypothesis H_0 that the letters from some alphabet A= {a_1,a_2,..., a_k }, are distributed uniformly against the alternative hypothesis H_1 that the true distribution is not uniform, in case k is large. (It is typical for random number testing and some cryptographic problems where k= 2^{10} - 2^{30} and more). In such a case it is difficult to use the chi-square test because the sample size must be greater than k. We suggest the adaptive chi-square test which can be successfully applied for testing some kinds of H_1 even in case when the sample size is much less than k. This statement is confirmed theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical proof is based on the consideration of one kind of the alternative hypothesis H_1 where the suggested test rejects the null hypothesis when the sample size is O( \sqrt{k} ) (instead of const k for the usual chi-square test ). For experimental investigation of the suggested test we consider a problem of testing ciphered Russian texts. It turns out that the suggested test can distinguish the ciphered texts from random sequences basing on a sample which is much smaller than that required for the usual chi-square test.

Available format(s)
Secret-key cryptography
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Unknown where it was published
adaptive testingrandom number testingblock cipher testing
Contact author(s)
ryabko @ neic nsk su
2002-03-08: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Boris Ryabko},
      title = {Adaptive chi-square test and its application to some cryptographic problems.},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2002/030},
      year = {2002},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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