Paper 2023/869

UniPlonk: Plonk with Universal Verifier

Shumo Chu, Nebra Team
Brandon H. Gomes, Nebra Team
Francisco Hernandez Iglesias, Nebra Team
Todd Norton, Nebra Team
Duncan Tebbs, Nebra Team

We propose UniPlonK, a modification of the PlonK protocol that uniformizes the Verifier’s work for families of circuits. Specifically, a single fixed-cost “Universal Verifier” can check proofs for circuits of different: sizes, public input lengths, selector polynomials, copy constraints, and even different custom gate sets. UniPlonK therefore extends the universality of PlonK beyond the SRS; it enables a single “Universal Verifier Circuit” capable of verifying proofs from different PlonK circuits. The Universal Verifier’s marginal cost over the ordinary Plonk verifier is small: for circuits using only the vanilla Plonk gate, the Universal Verifier performs a number of additional field multiplications proportional to the logarithm of the maximum supported circuit size; it incurs no additional elliptic curve operations. For circuits using custom gates, the Universal Verifier incurs additional elliptic curve arithmetic only when verifying proofs from circuits that do not use all supported gate types. For circuits that use all supported gates, the Universal Verifier’s additional cost consists only of field multiplications proportional to the logarithm of the maximum supported circuit size, the number of custom gate types, and the number of witness variables used by these gates. In both settings (vanilla-only and custom gates) the marginal cost to the prover is a fixed-base MSM of size ℓ, the length of the public input vector.

Note: clarified writing with comments from David Wong and Zhenfei Zhang

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
zero-knowledge proofrecursive proof composition
Contact author(s)
shumo @ nebra one
brandon @ nebra one
francisco @ nebra one
todd @ nebra one
dtebbs @ nebra one
2023-07-13: revised
2023-06-07: received
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      author = {Shumo Chu and Brandon H. Gomes and Francisco Hernandez Iglesias and Todd Norton and Duncan Tebbs},
      title = {{UniPlonk}: Plonk with Universal Verifier},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/869},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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