Paper 2021/1063

Cairo – a Turing-complete STARK-friendly CPU architecture

Lior Goldberg, Shahar Papini, and Michael Riabzev


Proof systems allow one party to prove to another party that a certain statement is true. Most existing practical proof systems require that the statement will be represented in terms of polynomial equations over a finite field. This makes the process of representing a statement that one wishes to prove or verify rather complicated, as this process requires a new set of equations for each statement. Various approaches to deal with this problem have been proposed. We present Cairo, a practically-efficient Turing-complete STARK-friendly CPU architecture. We describe a single set of polynomial equations for the statement that the execution of a program on this architecture is valid. Given a statement one wishes to prove, Cairo allows writing a program that describes that statement, instead of writing a set of polynomial equations.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
CairoSTARKzkSTARKproof systemzero knowledgeprogramming languagecompilation
Contact author(s)
lior @ starkware co
spapini @ starkware co
michael @ starkware co
2021-08-16: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Lior Goldberg and Shahar Papini and Michael Riabzev},
      title = {Cairo – a Turing-complete {STARK}-friendly {CPU} architecture},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1063},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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