Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/026

A Gapless Code-Based Hash Proof System based on RQC and its Applications

Slim Bettaieb and Loïc Bidoux and Olivier Blazy and Yann Connan and Philippe Gaborit

Abstract: Cramer and Shoup introduced at Eurocrypt’02 the concept of hash proof system, also designated as smooth projective hash functions. Since then, they have found several applications, from building CCA-2 encryption as they were initially created for, to being at the core of several authenticated key exchange or even allowing witness encryption. In the post-quantum setting, the very few candidates use a language based on ciphertexts to build their hash proof system. This choice seems to inherently introduce a gap, as some elements outside the language could not be distinguish from those in the language. This creates a lawless zone, where an adversary can possibly mount an undetectable attack, particularly problematic when trying to prove security in the UC framework. We show that this gap could be completely withdrawn using code-based cryptography. Starting from RQC, a candidate selected for the second round of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) post-quantum cryptography standardization project, we show how to build such a hash proof system from code-based cryptography and present a way, based on a proof of knowledge, to fully negate the gap. We propose two applications of our construction, a witness encryption scheme and a password authenticated key exchange (PAKE).

Category / Keywords: Code-Based Cryptography, Hash Proof System, Rank Quasi-Cyclic Scheme, Witness Encryption, Password Authenticated Key Exchange

Date: received 7 Jan 2021

Contact author: loic bidoux at owndata org

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20210112:074352 (All versions of this report)

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