Paper 2019/1400

RedShift: Transparent SNARKs from List Polynomial Commitments

Assimakis Kattis, New York University
Konstantin Panarin, Matter Labs
Alexander Vlasov, Matter Labs

We introduce an efficient transformation from univariate polynomial commitment based zk-SNARKs to their transparent counterparts. The transformation is achieved with the help of a new IOP primitive which we call a list polynomial commitment. This primitive is applicable for preprocessing zk-SNARKs over both prime and binary fields. We present the primitive itself along with a soundness analysis of the transformation and instantiate it with an existing universal proof system. We also present benchmarks for a proof of concept implementation alongside a comparison with the current non-transparent state-of-the-art. Our results show competitive efficiency both in terms of proof size and generation times. At the 80-bit security level, our benchmarks provide proof generation times of about a minute and proof sizes of around 515 KB for a circuit with one million gates.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Proceedings of the 2022 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security
polynomial commitments zero-knowledge proofs proximity testing verifiable computation
Contact author(s)
kattis @ cs nyu edu
kp @ matterlabs dev
av @ matterlabs dev
2022-09-09: last of 3 revisions
2019-12-04: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Assimakis Kattis and Konstantin Panarin and Alexander Vlasov},
      title = {RedShift: Transparent SNARKs from List Polynomial Commitments},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2019/1400},
      year = {2019},
      doi = {10.1145/548606.3560657},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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