Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2016/286

On a remarkable property of APN Gold functions

Anastasiya Gorodilova

Abstract: In [13] for a given vectorial Boolean function $F$ from $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ to itself it was defined an associated Boolean function $\gamma_F(a,b)$ in $2n$ variables that takes value~$1$ iff $a\neq{\bf 0}$ and equation $F(x)+F(x+a)=b$ has solutions. In this paper we introduce the notion of differentially equivalent functions as vectorial functions that have equal associated Boolean functions. It is an interesting open problem to describe differential equivalence class of a given APN function. We consider the APN Gold function $F(x)=x^{2^k+1}$, where gcd$(k,n)=1$, and prove that there exist exactly $2^{2n+n/2}$ distinct affine functions $A$ such that $F$ and $F+A$ are differentially equivalent if $n=4t$ for some $t$ and $k = n/2 \pm 1$; otherwise the number of such affine functions is equal to $2^{2n}$. This theoretical result and computer calculations obtained show that APN Gold functions for $k=n/2\pm1$ and $n=4t$ are the only functions (except one function in 6 variables) among all known quadratic APN functions in $2,\ldots,8$ variables that have more than $2^{2n}$ trivial affine functions $A^F_{c,d}(x)=F(x)+F(x+c)+d$, where $c,d\in\mathbb{F}_2^n$, preserving the associated Boolean function when adding to $F$.

Category / Keywords: foundations / Boolean function, Almost perfect nonlinear function, Almost bent function, Crooked function, Differential equivalence

Date: received 15 Mar 2016

Contact author: gorodilova at math nsc ru

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Version: 20160315:091353 (All versions of this report)

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