Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2017/419

Efficient hash maps to $\mathbb{G}_2$ on BLS curves

Alessandro Budroni and Federico Pintore

Abstract: When a pairing $e: \mathbb{G}_1 \times \mathbb{G}_2 \rightarrow \mathbb{G}_{T}$, on an elliptic curve $E$ defined over $\mathbb{F}_q$, is exploited for an identity-based protocol, there is often the need to hash binary strings into $\mathbb{G}_1$ and $\mathbb{G}_2$. Traditionally, if $E$ admits a twist $\tilde{E}$ of order $d$, then $\mathbb{G}_1=E(\mathbb{F}_q) \cap E[r]$, where $r$ is a prime integer, and $\mathbb{G}_2=\tilde{E}(\mathbb{F}_{q^{k/d}}) \cap \tilde{E}[r]$, where $k$ is the embedding degree of $E$ w.r.t. $r$. The standard approach for hashing into $\mathbb{G}_2$ is to map to a general point $P \in \tilde{E}(\mathbb{F}_{q^{k/d}})$ and then multiply it by the cofactor $c=\#\tilde{E}(\mathbb{F}_{q^{k/d}})/r$. Usually, the multiplication by $c$ is computationally expensive. In order to speed up such a computation, two different methods (by Scott et al. and by Fuentes et al.) have been proposed. In this paper we consider these two methods for BLS pairing-friendly curves having $k \in \{12,24,30,42,48\}$, providing efficiency comparisons. When $k=30,42,48$, the Fuentes et al. method requires an expensive one-off pre-computation which was infeasible for the computational power at our disposal. In these cases, we theoretically obtain hashing maps that follow Fuentes et al. idea.

Category / Keywords: pairing-based cryptography, pairing-friendly elliptic curves, fast hashing

Date: received 15 May 2017, last revised 16 May 2017

Contact author: budroni alessandro at gmail com

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Note: Removed \textit{} from the abstract.

Version: 20170521:015333 (All versions of this report)

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