Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2017/041

Reducing Garbled Circuit Size While Preserving Circuit Gate Privacy

Yongge Wang and Qutaibah m. Malluhi

Abstract: Yao's garbled circuits have been extensively used in Secure Function Evaluations (SFE). Several improvements have been proposed to improve the efficiency of garbled circuits. Kolesnikov and Schneider (2008) proposed the free-XOR technique. Naor, Pinkas, and Sumner (1999) introduced garbled row-reduction technique GRR3 to reduce each garbled gate to three ciphertexts, Pinkas et al (2009) proposed GRR2, and Zahur, Rosulek, and Evans (2015) introduced a half-gates technique to design free-XOR compatible GRR2. The GRR2, half-gates, and free-XOR garbling schemes improve efficiency by leaking locations of XOR gates in the circuit. This kind of information leakage is acceptable for SFE protocols though it maybe be unacceptable for other protocols such as Private Function Evaluation (PFE). For example, these techniques could not be used to improve the efficiency of existing non-universal-circuit-based constant round PFE protocols. The first result of this paper is a Gate Privacy preserving Garbled Row Reduction technique GPGRR2 for designing garbled circuits with at most two ciphertexts for each garbled gate. Compared with state-of-the-art gate-privacy-preserving garbling scheme GRR3, the scheme GPGRR2 reduces the garbled circuit size by a factor of at least 33%. The second result is the design of a linear (over integers) garbling scheme to garble a single odd gate to one ciphertext. Zahur, Rosulek, and Evans (2015) proved that a linear garbling scheme garbles each odd gate to at least $2$ ciphertexts. Our result shows that Zahur et al's result should be formulated more appropriately by restricting the ``linear concept'' explicitly to the field $GF({2^t})$. The third result is to use the GPGRR2 scheme to reduce the number of ciphertexts in non-universal-circuit based PFE protocols by a factor of 25%.

Category / Keywords: foundations / garbled circuits; private function evaluation

Date: received 18 Jan 2017, last revised 21 Feb 2017

Contact author: yonwang at uncc edu

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Version: 20170221:201624 (All versions of this report)

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