Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2016/263

Efficient Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Arithmetic Circuits in the Discrete Log Setting

Jonathan Bootle, Andrea Cerulli, Pyrros Chaidos, Jens Groth, Christophe Petit

Abstract: We provide a zero-knowledge argument for arithmetic circuit satisfiability with a communication complexity that grows logarithmically in the size of the circuit. The round complexity is also logarithmic and for an arithmetic circuit with fan-in 2 gates the computation of the prover and verifier is linear in the size of the circuit. The soundness of our argument relies solely on the well-established discrete logarithm assumption in prime order groups.

At the heart of our new argument system is an efficient zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of openings of two Pedersen multicommitments satisfying an inner product relation, which is of independent interest. The inner product argument requires logarithmic communication, logarithmic interaction and linear computation for both the prover and the verifier. We also develop a scheme to commit to a polynomial and later reveal the evaluation at an arbitrary point, in a verifiable manner. This is used to build an optimized version of the constant round square root complexity argument of Groth (CRYPTO 2009), which reduces both communication and round complexity.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Sigma-protocol, zero-knowledge argument, arithmetic circuit, discrete logarithm assumption

Original Publication (with minor differences): IACR-EUROCRYPT-2016

Date: received 8 Mar 2016

Contact author: jonathan bootle 14 at ucl ac uk,andrea cerulli 13@ucl ac uk,pyrros chaidos 10@ucl ac uk,christophe f petit@gmail com,j groth@ucl ac uk

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Version: 20160308:201336 (All versions of this report)

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