Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2015/249

Improved (Hierarchical) Inner-Product Encryption from Lattices

Keita Xagawa

Abstract: Inner-product encryption (IPE) provides fine-grained access control and has attractive applications. Agrawal, Freeman, and Vaikuntanathan~(Asiacrypt 2011) proposed the first IPE scheme from lattices by twisting the identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme by Agrawal, Boneh, and Boyen~(Eurocrypt 2010). Their IPE scheme supports inner-product predicates over $R^{\mu}$, where the ring is $R = \mathbb{Z}_q$. Several applications require the ring $R$ to be exponentially large and, thus, they set $q = 2^{O(n)}$ to implement such applications. This choice results in the AFV IPE scheme with public parameters of size $O(\mu n^2 \lg^3{q}) = O(\mu n^5)$ and ciphertexts of size $O(\mu n \lg^3{q}) = O(\mu n^4)$, where $n$ is the security parameter. Hence, this makes the scheme impractical, as they noted.

We address this efficiency issue by ``untwisting'' their twist and providing another twist. Our scheme supports inner-product predicates over $R^\mu$ where $R = \mathrm{GF}(q^n)$ instead of $\mathbb{Z}_q$. Our scheme has public parameters of size $O(\mu n^2 \lg^2{q})$ and ciphertexts of size $O(\mu n \lg^2{q})$. Since the cardinality of $\mathrm{GF}(q^n)$ is inherently exponential in $n$, we have no need to set $q$ as the exponential size for applications.

As side contributions, we extend our IPE scheme to a hierarchical IPE (HIPE) scheme and propose a fuzzy IBE scheme from IPE. Our HIPE scheme is more efficient than that developed by Abdalla, De Caro, and Mochetti (Latincrypt 2012). Our fuzzy IBE is secure under a much weaker assumption than that employed by Agrawal et al.~(PKC 2012), who constructed the first lattice-based fuzzy IBE scheme.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / predicate encryption, (hierarchical) inner-product encryption, lattices, learning with errors, full-rank difference encoding, pseudo-commutativity.

Original Publication (with major differences): IACR-PKC-2013

Date: received 16 Mar 2015

Contact author: xagawa keita at lab ntt co jp

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Version: 20150319:073106 (All versions of this report)

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