Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2014/082

Garbled RAM Revisited, Part I

Craig Gentry and Shai Halevi and Mariana Raykova and Daniel Wichs

Abstract: The notion of *garbled random-access machines* (garbled RAMs) was introduced by Lu and Ostrovsky (Eurocrypt 2013). It can be seen as an analogue of Yao's garbled circuits, that allows a user to garble a RAM program directly, without performing the expensive step of converting it into a circuit. In particular, the size of the garbled program and the time it takes to create and evaluate it are only proportional to its running time on a RAM rather than its circuit size. Lu and Ostrovsky gave a candidate construction of this primitive based on pseudo-random functions (PRFs).

The starting point of this work is a subtle yet difficult-to-overcome issue with the Lu-Ostrovsky construction, that prevents a proof of security from going through. Specifically, the construction requires a complex "circular" use of Yao garbled circuits and PRFs. As our main result, we show how to remove this circularity and get a provably secure solution using *identity-based encryption* (IBE). We also abstract out, simplify and generalize the main ideas behind the Lu-Ostrovsky construction, making them easier to understand and analyze.

In a companion work to ours (Part II), Lu and Ostrovsky show an alternative approach to solving the circularity problem. Their approach relies only on the existence of one-way functions, at the price of higher overhead. Specifically, our construction has overhead $\poly(k)\polylog(n)$ (with $k$ the security parameter and $n$ the data size), while the Lu-Ostrovsky approach can achieve overhead $\poly(k)n^\eps$ for any constant $\eps>0$. It remains as an open problem to achieve an overhead of $\poly(k)\polylog(n)$ assuming only the existence of one-way functions.

Category / Keywords: foundations / Secure Computation, Oblivious RAM, Garbled RAM, Garbled Circuits

Original Publication (with major differences): IACR-EUROCRYPT-2014

Date: received 5 Feb 2014, last revised 5 Feb 2014

Contact author: danwichs at gmail com

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Note: A merged version of this work and Part II appears in Eurocrypt 2014

Version: 20140205:144735 (All versions of this report)

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