Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2013/808
Secrecy without Perfect Randomness: Cryptography with (Bounded) Weak Sources
Michael Backes and Aniket Kate and Sebastian Meiser and Tim Ruffing
Abstract: Cryptographic protocols are commonly designed and their security proven under the assumption that the protocol parties have access to perfect (uniform) randomness. Actually deployed physical randomness sources often fall short in meeting this assumption, but instead provide only a steady stream of bits with certain high entropy. Trying to ground cryptographic constructions on such imperfect, weaker sources of randomness has thus far mostly given rise to a multitude of impossibility results, including the impossibility to construct provably secure encryption, commitments, secret sharing, and zero-knowledge proofs based solely on a weak source. More generally, indistinguishability-based properties break down for such weak sources.
In this paper, we show that the loss of security induced by using a weak source can be meaningfully quantified if the source is bounded, e.g., for the well-studied Santha-Vazirani (SV) sources. The quantification relies on a novel relaxation of indistinguishability by a quantitative parameter. We call the resulting notion differential indistinguishability in order to reflect its structural similarity to differential privacy. More concretely, we prove that indistinguishability with uniform randomness implies differential indistinguishability with weak randomness. We show that if the amount of weak randomness is limited (e.g., by using it only to seed a PRG), all cryptographic primitives and protocols still achieve differential indistinguishability. Moreover, we demonstrate that a nested composition of primitives can achieve better differential indistinguishability guarantees (in terms of the quantitative parameter) than the individual primitives.
Category / Keywords: foundations / indistinguishability, randomness, weak sources, differential privacy, pseudorandom generators, nested compostion, Santha-Vazirani sources
Date: received 2 Dec 2013, last revised 9 Oct 2014
Contact author: meiser at cs uni-saarland de
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Version: 20141009:192122 (All versions of this report)
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