**Effect of the Dependent Paths in Linear Hull**

*Zhenli Dai and Meiqin Wang and Yue Sun*

**Abstract: **Linear Hull is a phenomenon that there are a lot of linear paths
with the same data mask but different key masks for a block cipher.
In 1994, K. Nyberg presented the effect on the key-recovery attack
such as Algorithm 2 with linear hull, in which the required number
of the known plaintexts can be decreased compared with that in the
attack using an individual linear path. In 2009, S. Murphy proved
that K. Nyberg's results can only be used to give a lower bound on
the data complexity and will be no use on the real linear
cryptanalysis. In fact, the linear hull produces such positive
effect in linear cryptanalysis only for some keys instead of the
whole key space. So the linear hull can be used to improve the
classic linear cryptanalysis for some weak keys. In the same year,
K. Ohkuma gave the linear hull analysis on reduced-round PRESENT
block cipher, and showed that there are $32\%$ weak keys of PRESENT
which make the bias of a given linear hull with multiple paths more
than a lower bound. However, K. Ohkuma has not considered the
dependency of the multi-path, and his results are based on the
assumption that the linear paths are independent. Actually, most of
the linear paths are dependent in the linear hull. In this paper, we
will analyze the dependency of the linear paths in a linear hull and
the real effect of linear hull with the dependent linear paths.
Firstly, we give the relation between the bias of a linear hull and
its linear paths in linear cryptanalysis. Secondly, we present the
formula to compute the rate of weak keys corresponding to the
expected bias of the dependent paths. Based on the formula, we show
that the dependency of linear paths reduces the number of weak keys
corresponding to higher biases of the linear hull compared with that
in the independent case. It means that the dependency of linear
paths reduces the effect of linear hull. At last, we verify our
conclusion by analyzing reduced-round of PRESENT.

**Category / Keywords: **Linear Hull, Dependency of Linear Paths, Weak Key, PRESENT, Block Cipher

**Date: **received 2 Jun 2010, last revised 7 Nov 2010

**Contact author: **mqwang at sdu edu cn

**Available format(s): **PDF | BibTeX Citation

**Version: **20101107:211026 (All versions of this report)

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